Quantitative Research Method – Part 4


Citation, Reference and Data

What is a Citation?

Citation is giving to support your arguments. Referring to other’s Research Papers to justify your views.

How to give Citation?

Generally, is it assumed by students that citation is very difficult to write! Let me share you the easiest way to write a citation.

For Single or Tow-Three Authors: Last Name Initial, (Published Year), Topic Name.

For Multiple or More than Five Authors: Last Name Initial of 1st Author, et all., (Published Year), Topic Name.

What is Referring?

Referring List is also called Bibliography.

References Direct Code
Direct Code is something mentioning Word to Word.

References Paraphrasing
Paraphrasing is mentioning something with different Words but Same Meaning.

What is an APA Style?

Generally, APA Style is followed to write Research Article. APA Style means American Physiological Association Academic Style – 6th Edition (always use the latest edition)

What is the source to collect Primary Data?

For Primary Data Collection, Questioner or Survey Questions are filled by the audience. The Questioner is the best way to collect Primary Data for Students, especially.

What is the Questioner?

Questioner or Survey Questions is a Research Tool and Research Technique. Questioner or Survey Question is used to gather respondents’ information to use for Research purpose.

The Items or Questions should be at least Four or Five and Maximum Seven for initial Research purpose. However, 20 Items or Questions are shall be reasonable for Thesis purpose.

The Items or Questions should reasonable, which means questions should not be much longer. Generally, Likert Scale is used for subjective questions to answer. Likert Scale can have Five, Seven or 15 options. A Likert Scale is a strong Tool or Source for any Subjective Questioner.

Likert Scale shall start from Strongly Disagreed to Strongly Agreed. It is to follow a sequence of Software’s Coding. The Software’s Code Ranking or Marking is something like 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and so on. The sequence of Qualitative Data and Response Rate should not be changed. It is strongly recommended to maintain adoption of questions and software implications. Example, Strongly Disagreed, Disagreed, Neutral, Agreed, Strongly Agreed.

If the Sequence keeps on changing then Software may not generate results or give an error. For Negative Questions, we have to give Reverse Coding to Software.

What is the Demographic Profile?

Demographic Profile is Respondent Profile. Respondent Profile is a crucial part of any Questioner or Survey. Example of Demographic or Respondent Profile is Name, Gander, Age bracket Qualification, etc.

The Target Audience must be justified with your Research Questions and Research Topic.

Usually, Questions are already mentioned in Base Past Paper or Literature in Result Analysis, Methodology or Appendix Section. Questions can be adopted from more than one Research Paper but always remember to mention the source of the Question.
(Likert Scale and other Tools and Techniques will be further explained in the Methodology Section.)

What is the source to collect Secondary Data?

All Data, which is already gathered for any purpose and available Online or somewhere else to be used for any other purpose as well is called Secondary Data.

Generally, Secondary Data is collected from different authentic online sources such as World Bank Data-Base, IMF Data-Base, and Published Accounts, etc.

Also, Read

Introduction to Quantitative Research Method – Part 1

Introduction to Quantitative Research Method – Part 5

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