The hypothesis is the combination of two words i.e. Hypothetical and Thesis, it means hypothetical statement. Hypothesis is a singular and for plural, it is written as Hypotheses. Based on research, we test the hypothesis, that this was the assumption of research and now going to test the model. Approval and disapproval is a knowledge which is extracted on the basis of collected data. In simple words, a testable assumption which needs to be tested is called a hypothesis.
For good Hypothesis, need to fulfill below-mentioned criteria:
- It should have an expected relationship
- It should be concise
- It should be testable
- It should be cleared
- It should be specific
- It should have consistency
- It should be backed by literature
For example, the relationship between more than one variable should be comparable. Such as, “male students perform better than the female student” or “job stress leads to work-life imbalance”.
The placement of the Hypothesis is after Literature Review. Research Topic, Research Question, Objective and Hypothesis should be consistent with each other.
There are two styles of hypothesis:
- Directional Hypothesis – it checks the impact of one variable on other variables. For instance, Marketing Mix has a positive impact on Customer Satisfaction.
- Non-Directional Hypothesis – It checks the significance between the variables. For instance, Marketing Mix leads to Customer Satisfaction.
- Double-Barrel Hypothesis – This is the situation when Directional
Hypothesis and Non-Directional Hypothesis are used together. Double-Barrel Hypothesis shall be avoided.
There are two types of Hypothesis, these are:
- Null Hypothesis – which is denoted by HO
- Alternate Hypothesis – which is denoted by HA or H1
Always the Null Hypothesis is tested. Null Hypothesis reflects No relationship between variables. For example, there is no relationship between the Marketing Mix and Customer Satisfaction. Only the Null Hypothesis is either accepted or rejected.
On the other hand, the Alternate Hypothesis is not tested. It reflects the relationship between variables. For example, remittance has a positive impact on GDP.
Here is the comprehensive example of Alternate Hypothesis (from i to iii) and Null Hypothesis (from iv to vi):
i. “Variable A” has a direct positive impact on “Variable Z”
ii. “Variable B” has a direct positive impact on “Variable Z”
iii. “Variable C” leads to a negative impact on “Variable Z”
iv. There is no relationship between “Variable A” and “Variable Z”
v. There is no relationship between “Variable B” and “Variable Z”
vi. There is no relationship between “Variable C” and “Variable Z”
One of the best methods to comprehend the Methodology is Research Onion. Research Onion is used to strategist the methodology of research.
Research Onion comprises six layers as follows:
i. Research Philosophy
ii. Research Approaches
iii. Research Methodological choice
iv. Research Strategy or Strategies
v. Research Time Horizon
vi. Research Techniques and Procedures
Philosophy is a point of view. Research Philosophy is the first stand. The research thesis is followed by Research Philosophy. Research Philosophy is a procedure i.e. Pragmatism, Positivism, Realism, Interpretative, etc.
There are three approaches for a research purpose:
- Deduction Research Approach – which is also called Quantitative Research Method.
- Induction Research Approach – which is also called Qualitative Research Method.
- Abduction Research Approach – which is also called Observation Research Method.
There are three types of Research Purpose:
- Explanatory – Explaining the Existing Theory
- Exploratory – Exploring the New Theory
- Descriptive – the Only Description, there is no infer or recommendation