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Job Analysis

It is the process to hire a person and determine the duties and skill requirements for a particular job position.

Job Description

It is one product of job analysis, a list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities.

Job Specifications

It is another product of job analysis, a list of a job’s “human requirements,” that is, the requisite education, skills, personality, and so on.

Some types of information need to collect to conduct a job analysis, these include:

  • Work activities (e.g. cleaning etc.)
  • Human behaviors (e.g. deciding, writing, etc.)
  • Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids
  • Performance standards (To evaluate later)
  • Job context (physical conditions, schedules)
  • Human requirements

Usage of Job Analysis Information

The information collected during job analysis can be used for multiple purposes such as:

  • Recruitment and Selection
  • Compensation
  • Performance Appraisal
  • Training
  • Discovering Unassigned Duties
Human Resource Management - Part 3 1
Uses of Job Analysis Information

The information can be used in below-mentioned steps:

  1. Decide how you’ll use the information.
  2. Review relevant background information.
  3. Select representative positions.
  4. Actually analyze the job.
  5. Verify the job analysis information.
  6. Develop a job description and job

Organization chart

Organization Chart is a flowchart that displays the organization-wide distribution of work, with titles of each position and interconnecting lines that show reporting and communication framework.

Process chart

Process Chart is a work flow chart that shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from a particular job.

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information:

1. Interview

  • Information sources
    • Individual employees
    • Groups of employees
    • Supervisors with knowledge of the job
  • Advantages
    • The quick, direct way to find overlooked information.
  • Disadvantages
    • Distorted information
  • Interview formats
    • Structured (Checklist)
    • Unstructured
  • Guidelines for Interview
    • Supervisor and the job analyst should work together to recognize the workers who know the job best.
    • Establish a quick connection with the interviewee.
    • Follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists open-ended questions and provides space for answers.
    • Ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence.
    • Review and verify the data after completing the interview.

2. Questionnaires

  • Information source
    • Questionnaires shall be filled out by employees to describe their job-related duties and responsibilities.
  • Questionnaire formats
    • Structured checklists
    • Opened-ended questions
  • Advantages
    • Fast and proficient way to gather information from large numbers of employees
  • Disadvantages
    • Expense and time used up in preparing and testing the questionnaire

3. Observation

  • Information source
    • Observing and noting the physical activities of employees during them go about their jobs.
  • Advantages
    • Provides first-hand information
    • Reduces distortion of information
  • Disadvantages
    • Time-consuming
    • Difficulty in capturing the entire job cycle
    • Of little use, if a job involves a high level of mental activity

4. Participant Diary/Logs

  • Information source
    • Workers keep a sequential diary/ log of what they do and the time spent in each activity.
  • Advantages
    • Generates a more comprehensive picture of the job
    • Employee involvement
  • Disadvantages
    • Misrepresentation of information
    • Depends upon employees to perfectly recall their activities

Job Analysis Quantitative Techniques

  • Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
    • A questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs.
    • The PAQ comprises six divisions, with each division containing numerous job elements. The divisions include:
      Information input – Where and how does the worker get information to do the job?

Mental process – What levels of reasoning are necessary for the job?

Work output – What physical activities are performed?

Relationships with others – What kind of relationships are required to perform the job?

Job context – What working conditions and social contexts are involved?

Other – What else is relevant to the job?

  • Department Of Labor (DOL)
    • A standardized procedure by which different jobs can be quantitatively rated, classified, and compared.
  • Functional job analysis
    • FJA takes into account the magnitude to which instructions, reasoning, judgment, mathematical and verbal ability are compulsory for performing job tasks.

Also, visit Human Resource Management – Part 1

Also, visit Human Resource Management – Part 2

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